VLANs are everywhere. You can find them in most organization with a properly configured network. There are a few different protocols, many of which are vendor-specific, but at its core, every VLAN does much the same thing and the benefits of VLAN scale as your network grows in size and organizational complexity. Those advantages are a big part of why VLANs are so heavily relied on by professional networks of all sizes.
In fact, it would be difficult to manage or scale networks without them. It would be difficult to manage or scale even moderately complex networks with the user of VLANs. Okay, so you know the acronym, but what exactly is a VLAN?
The basic concept should be familiar to anyone who has worked with or used virtual servers. Think for a second how virtual machines work. Through virtualization, you are able to effectively turn a single physical computer into multiple virtual computers each available for separate tasks and users. Virtual LANs work in much the same way as virtual servers.
One or more managed switches run the software similar to hypervisor software that allows the switches to create multiple virtual switches within one physical network. Each virtual switch is its own self-contained network. The main difference between virtual servers and virtual LANs is that virtual LANs can be distributed across multiple physical pieces of hardware with a designated cable called a trunk.
To respond to these changes, you upgraded to a port switch to accommodate new devices on the network. You might consider just running an ethernet cable to each of the new devices and calling the task done, but the problem is that the file storage and services being used by each department must be kept separate. VLANs are the best way to do that. Within the web interface of the switch, you can configure three separate VLANs, one for each department.
The simplest way to divide them is by port numbers. Now you have organized your physical network into three virtual networks. The software on the switch can manage the traffic between the clients in each VLAN. Now, each department has its own smaller, less cluttered, and more efficient network, and you can manage them all through the same piece of hardware.
This is a very efficient and cost-effective way to manage a network. When you need the departments to be able to interact, you can make them do so through the router on the network. The router can regulate and control traffic between the VLANs and enforce stronger security rules.
In many cases, the departments will need to work together and interact. You can implement communication between the virtual networks through the router, setting security rules to ensure appropriate security and privacy of the individual virtual networks. VLANs and subnets are actually quite similar and serve similar functions. Both subnets and VLANs divide up networks and broadcast domains.
How to configure trunk on Cisco Catalyst Switch
In both cases, interactions between subdivisions can only occur through a router. The differences between them come in the form of their implementation and how they alter network structure. Subnets are a network level construct and are handled with routers, organizing around IP addresses.
Routers carve out ranges of IP addresses and negotiate the connections between them. This places all of the stress of network management on the router. Subnets can also become complicated as your network scales up in size and complexity.
The data link level is closer to the hardware and less abstract.
System Configuration Guide for Cisco Unified Communications Manager, Release 11.5(1)
Virtual LANs emulate hardware acting as ndividual switches.When Q. SIG data. When you decode the same in the leaf cluster, it displays empty and empty number is forwarded. You can also configure your trunks with security such as digest authentication and signaling and media encryption by configuring a SIP trunk security profile that includes security features such as digest authentication and TLS signaling and associate that profile to the SIP trunks in your network.
For the trunk to allow encrypted o encrypt call media, you must also configure the trunk to allow SRTP media. When you configure a SIP trunk security profile, and then assign that profile to a SIP trunk, the security settings from the profile get applied to the trunk. You can configure multiple SIP trunk security profiles to cover the different security requirements that you have for different sets of SIP trunks in your network.
Make sure that you understand the devices to which you want to connect your trunks and how those devices implement SIP. Configure SIP Profiles. If you don't configure SIP trunk security profiles, by default, Cisco Unified Communications Manager applies a nonsecure sip trunk security profile. Configure Common Device Configuration. Set up a Common Device Configuration for the trunk. For dual-stack trunks, configure the IP addressing preference.
Configure the SIP trunks in your network. In addition, assign any SIP normalization or transparency scripts that your trunk connection requires. When you assign the profile to a SIP trunk, the trunk takes on the settings of the security profile. Click Add New. From the Device Security Mode drop-down list, select Encrypted. For device authentication, in the X.
The default for TLS is To enable digest authentication, do the following. Check the Enable Digest Authentication check box. Enter a Nonce Validity Timer value to indicate the number of seconds that must pass before the system generates a new nonce. The default is 10 minutes. To enable digest authentication for applications, check the Enable Application Level Authorization check box.
For more information on the fields and their configuration options, see the system Online Help. Click Save. A common device configuration comprises a set of optional set of user-specific feature attributes. Configure the remaining fields in the Common Device Configuration window. Use this procedure to configure a SIP trunk. You can assign up to 16 destination addresses for a SIP trunk.
Optional If you want to apply a Common Device Configuration to this trunk, select the configuration from the drop-down list. Configure the destination address for the SIP trunk:.The plans for this project follow those requirements. Regulation corn bags need to be 6-inches square, made from duck canvas and be filled with two cups of corn feed.
You can also purchase corn bags made with a plastic filling; these are less expensive than the corn-filled bags and are weatherproof. Corn-filled bags can easily get ruined if left in the rain. Cut the 2x4s to the length specified in the cut list for the frame. Lay the plywood on top of the box, use the plywood to square up the 2x4 frame.
Repeat for the second platform box. Place a compass point centered on that line then draw the arc. Use a jigsaw to make the cut. Turn the box upside down; lay a leg parallel, flush up against one of the top corners with the radius side in the corner. Clamp into place. From the inside of the box, make a mark in the center of the 2x4 vertically inside the radius. Install the carriage bolt through both holes and attach with a washer and a wing nut. Check for operation; see if the legs can fold up and down inside of the platform.
You may have to adjust the radius top if it is contacting anywhere, use a sander to do this. Repeat the process for the other legs. To cut the angle on bottom of the leg, turn the box right-side up and set it on a worktable with the legs tucked under.
Place a block or anything that will hold it up, we used a bucket under the box so that the back of the platform is 12 inches off the tabletop. Slide the box to the edge of the table, pull down the leg closest to the edge so that it hangs just over the table edge.
Using the tabletop as a guide, draw a straight line across the bottom of the 2x4. Repeat for the opposite side. Cut the ends off using a circular saw. To find the center point for the hole, make a mark 9" down from the top and 12" in from each side. Pre-drill a hole along the edge of the circle large enough to accept the jigsaw blade. Remove the drill and use a jigsaw to cut out the circle. Sand the edges of the hole smooth. Prime the entire box.
The second rule is, the kids should be involved. The building of a treehouse was an important selling point when we told our boys we were moving out of the big, exciting city to a sleepy rural town. And they both drove some nails and screws and found some cool branches that we incorporated into the design.
They participated. Meaning: The plan will change as you go. And other ideas will prove undoable. Branches will get in the way, and things will generally look different from the air. Even a few feet up. So improvise. Make it yours. I chose a tree with two trunks and measured 10 feet up from the ground on each trunk. For the floor joists, I used three pressure-treated 2 x 12 boards and fanned them out from the foot mark on each trunk: one joist on the outside edges of the trees, and one threaded through the V in the middle.
I supported the outer ends of the joists with vertical pressure-treated 4 x 4 posts and clamps to hold them steady. I secured the 2 x 12s snugly to the trunks by adding nuts and washers to the ends of the rods and tightening them with a wrench.
So, at this point, the three big floor joists were splayed out into the air. The joists were tightly secured to the trunks at one end by the threaded rods, and propped up on the other by vertical 4 x 4s. Fasten the base and build the floor. The 4 x 4 posts on the outer ends of the joists became permanent supports, strengthened by diagonal pressure-treated 2 x 4 struts.
Pre-boring the joists with screw-shank clearance holes makes the screws go in a whole lot easier. Then I used 3-inch-long galvanized decking screws to attach the 2 x 4 struts to the posts, as pictured. The struts add rigidity to the frame and help prevent swaying and wobbling. Once the joists and posts are secured, install the treehouse floor by screwing 2x pressure-treated lumber across the joists. I used alternating 2 x 4s and 2 x 6s to create an interesting look.
Fasten each floorboard with 3-inch decking screws. I left the ends of the floorboards staggered as opposed to trimming them flush with one anotherso the upward struts of my railings are staggered, too. I simply measured 2 x 4s to the same length and fastened them to the ends of each floorboard, using more structural screws, then added a flat railing along the top all the way around.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I am currently setting up Jenkins to work with SVN repository. Currently it works fine for the trunk. Now I want to set up Jenkins to take care of newly created branches. I don't want to create a new project manually for every new branch in SVN.
Also check my extend answer if you are not very familiar with jenkins. The Subversion plugin should include a drop-down build parameter option. You can include your base repository and then select either the branches, tags, or trunk. Check this out: How to configure a single Jenkins job to make the release process from trunk or branches? We have a job for each branch and truck. If we have 30 projects, we have 30 trunk projects, and 30 projects for each branch we are currently using.
That can be over a jobs, but we use views to help separate them out. Very simple to use a branch or even a tag in Subversion: Simply use the URL that contains the branch.
I copy my jobs manually whenever we create a new branch. I have to change the Subversion URL, and the description. Everything else is set to use Jenkin's defaults. No wacky working directory, no funky copying of build artifacts we store those in Jenkins. We have about 30 or so jobs, and I can duplicate all of them in less than a half hour.
I've simply had problems with the automation, and if I have to go through all the jobs anyway to make sure everything is fine, I might as well do it manually. You could parameterize your builds. That is, have the user enter the branch's name or select it from a drop down list. This means creating a single job for all of your branches.
However, that defeats the continuous build aspect of Jenkins since you have to manually trigger each job.
How to Build a Regulation Cornhole Set
Some sites have scripts that can mass produce a new branch. You simply need to copy the config. Some sites have created template jobs that make this a bit easier. They simply duplicate their template jobs, modify a few parameters, and then reenable all of those jobs.
There's a JobCopy builder Plugin that allows you to define template build projects, and then replace strings in the template to create actual jobs. There's also an Ant script on the Jenkins Wiki that duplicates jobs for you.
Learn more. Asked 6 years, 10 months ago. Active 3 years, 11 months ago. Viewed 59k times. Micha 4, 8 8 gold badges 30 30 silver badges 46 46 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. It provides a step by step solution with screenshots.Router-on-a-stick is a term frequently used to describe a setup up that consists of a router and switch connected using one Ethernet link configured as an While some believe the term 'router-on-a-stick' sounds a bit silly, it's a very popular term and commonly used in networks where no layer-3 switch exists.
A good example of a router-on-a-stick configuration which also happens to be the one we are going to cover would be a Call Manager Express installation where there is the need to split the VoIP network, consisting of your Cisco IP Phone devices, from your data network where all workstations and servers are located. Our example is based on a scenario you are most likely to come across when dealing with VoIP networks.
Because VoIP implementations require you to separate the data and voice network in order to route packets between them, you need either a layer 3 switch or a router.
This configuration ensures availability and stability of the VoIP service, especially during peak traffic hours in your network. Packets running between VLANs are routed via the CCME router connected to the switch using one physical port configured as a trunk port on both ends switch and router. This example will show you how to configure a Cisco router and switch in order to create a trunk link between them and have the router route packets between your VLANs.
This diagram shows an illustration of the above configuration. Next, we need to create the trunk port that will connect to the router. To eliminate confusion, these commands are instructing the switch thus:. Note: The spanning-tree portfast trunk command should never be used on ports that connect to another switch, to ensure network loops are avoided.
The above steps complete the switch-side configuration. We need to follow a similar configuration for our router to enable communication with our switch and allow all VLAN traffic to pass through and route as necessary.
Creating a trunk link on a router port is not very different from the process used above - while we create the trunk port on one physical interface, we are required to create a sub-interface for each VLAN. Again, this is a fairly simple process and easy to understand once you've done it at least one time. In order to form a trunk link with our switch it is necessary to create one sub-interface for every VLAN configured on our switch.
How to set up a SIP trunk in the Asterisk PBX
After creating the sub-interface, we assign an IP address to it and set the encapsulation type to For example, the encapsulation dot1q 2 command defines This is a default parameter on every Cisco switch and therefore must be matched by the router as well. The ip virtual-reassembly command is usually automatically thrown in by the Cisco IOS we've included it to show you the command and is a security measure to avoid buffer overflow and control memory usage during an attack of fragmented packets which can cough up your router's resources.
This command is added automatically when you enable the NAT service using the ip nat inside command. This article explained the use of router-on-a-stick configurations and showed how you can configure an Router-on-a-stick configurations are extremely useful in environments where no layer-3 switch exists, providing Inter-VLAN routing services with a single router and one interface - cutting down seriously the costs for internal routing.
It is always preferable to use a router with a Gigabit Ethernet interface to ensure you've got plenty of bandwidth to handle large amounts of data transfers if needed. If you have found the article useful, we would really appreciate you sharing it with others by using the services provided at the top left corner of this article. Sharing our articles takes only a minute of your time and helps Firewall.This document uses a Cisco router. But you can use any other router that supports EtherChannel and The Requirements section of this document provides a list of routers that support EtherChannel and The FEC and Cisco routers support EtherChannel and However, all routers do not support both features.
Use this table in order to determine which router platforms support FEC as well as Each of these modules supports a maximum of six EtherChannels, with up to eight ports in an EtherChannel bundle.
The information in this document was created from the devices in a specific lab environment. All of the devices used in this document started with a cleared default configuration. If your network is live, make sure that you understand the potential impact of any command. For more information on document conventions, refer to the Cisco Technical Tips Conventions.
The combination provides fault-tolerant, high-speed links between switches, routers, and servers. Trunking carries traffic from several VLANs over a point-to-point link between the two devices. The purpose of the configuration of trunking between the switch and the router is to provide interVLAN communication.
In a campus network, you configure trunking over an EtherChannel link to carry the multiple-VLAN information over a high-bandwidth channel.
In this section, you are presented with the information to configure the features described in this document.
Configuring EtherChannels on Catalyst By default, all interfaces are in VLAN 1. On an You must configure the native VLAN in the same way on each side of the trunk. Then, the router or switch can recognize to which VLAN a frame belongs when the router or switch receives a frame with no tag. For interVLAN routing, be sure to configure the default gateway on all workstations that connect to the switches.
This default gateway is the IP address that you configure on the subinterface.How to make a Trunk Setup (AirRide Install Part 1)
You create a subinterface on the router for each VLAN. In this example, workstation1 has been configured with default gateway This gateway is the IP address of subinterface port channel 1. Workstation2 has been configured with default gateway Certain show commands are supported by the Output Interpreter Tool registered customers onlywhich allows you to view an analysis of show command output. The show etherchannel command displays EtherChannel information.
The command also displays the load-balance or frame-distribution scheme, port, and port channel information. The command syntax is:. The show interfaces interface-id switchport command displays the switchport configuration of the interface in the Administrative Mode field and the Administrative Trunking Encapsulation field of the output. The show interfaces interface-id trunk command displays the trunk configuration of the interface.
You can use the show interfaces port-channel channel-number command in order to verify the port channel interface and the channel member ports. You can use the show interfaces interface. Contents Introduction.
Cisco M series M, M, M. Cat Cat configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line.